In-text referencing when using direct quotes from personal communications, emails, SMS and interviews.

  • Personal communications should be cited in-text.
  • Personal communications include face-to-face interviews or conversation, telephone calls, facsimiles, letters, and emails
  • Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list.

There are two options for in text referencing:

  1. Adding a citation at the end of a sentence
  2. Using the name of the program, or email as part of your sentence.

Essential information to include:

  • The name of the person.
  • Type of communication.
  • The date.
  • Use ‘single’ inverted commas, to indicate the quotation.

Examples of in-text referencing when using direct quotes

  • When interviewed on October 10 2007, L Kemlo confirmed that ‘the Teaching & Learning resource for referencing will be completed and ready for distribution by the end of October’.