In-text referencing when paraphrasing from personal communications, emails, SMS and interviews.

  • Personal communications should be cited in-text.
  • Personal communications include face-to-face interviews or conversation, telephone calls, facsimiles, letters, and emails.
  • Personal communications do not need to be included in the reference list.

There are two options for in text referencing:

  1. Adding a citation at the end of a sentence.
  2. Using the name of the program, or email as part of your sentence.

Essential information to include:

  • The name of the person.
  • Type of communication.
  • The date.

Examples of in-text referencing when using direct quotes

(a) The decision was confirmed in an email from J Smith on September 3 2007.


(b) Dr M Lee (Business Academic Development Group, RMIT University) confirmed this by facsimile on August 4 2007.


(c) When interviewed on October 10 2007, L Kemlo confirmed that the Teaching & Learning resource for referencing would be completed and ready for distribution by the end of October.