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APA in-text referencing

The APA system of referencing uses in text references or citations to acknowledge someone else's words, thoughts or ideas that have been included in your work. Information required in the text of your assignment includes:

  • the author(s)'s surname(s)
  • the year of publication
  • the page number or paragraph number for non paginated sources (direct quotes only).

Punctuation in citations

Commas are used to separate information within parentheses (), e.g. author's name and date of publication. Full stops are always used after the abbreviation p for page number or pp for page numbers, e.g. p. 34 or pp. 34-35. If the citation is at the end of the sentence, it is considered to be part of the sentence, so the full stop is placed after the closing parenthesis.


Example of a harvard intext citation

Additional note:

The ampersand, the symbol '&' used to replace 'and', can only be used inside parenthical citations e.g. .....for many participants (Jones & Lee, 2011). In a sentence, only use 'and' e.g. Jones and Lee (2011) point out that many participants.....


Including a reference



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