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Reference list

A reference list must be provided at the end of your assessment task. Reference lists allow others to access your sources, so they must give full details of all the published sources used in the assignment must be given. The reference list must be double-spaced, with second and subsequent lines indented. The following provides an overview of common APA reference list conventions.


  • Book author(s) or editor
  • Year of publication
  • Book title (in italics)
  • Publication information: place: publisher

Book, print version

Book (print) reference list example

With e-books, place the version in brackets after the title. For e-books and chapters that are only available electronically, the electronic retrieval statement (either URL or DOI) is given in place of the publisher location and name.

e-book reference list example using URL

E-book reference list example using DOI

Journal articles

  • Article author(s)
  • Date of publication
  • Article title
  • Journal title (in italics)
  • Volume number (in italics), (issue in brackets if required), page numbers
  • Digital object identifier (DOI): used for electronic publications. If no DIO is given for online journal articles, use the homepage URL of the journal.

Journal article (print) without DOI

Journal article (print) reference list example

E-journal with DOI

E-Journal reference list example using DOI

E-journal without DOI

E-journal reference list example with URL


Ensure that any websites cited are appropriate for academic purposes and not general sources of information. The convention for citing websites in a reference list is to provide the same details as for a non-electronic publication and include the URL as the place of publication.

The convention for citing websites in a reference list is a follows:

  • Author(s) / organisation's name
  • Date last modified (if there is no date, n.d. can be used)
  • Title of page
  • Website URL

Website reference list example

The retrieval date is not stated unless the source material might be edited or changed.

For more in-depth reference information see the RMIT Library's referencing guides,;ID=8rwjnkcmfoeez, which contains additional, more complex examples.






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