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Abbreviations in citations

Two abbreviations are useful when footnoting:

  • Ibid - citation is from the preceding reference
  • Op Cit - citation is from a previously cited reference (not the preceding reference)


Ibid is used when citing a new reference that is from the same text as the preceding reference. In the first reference to the text give the full details of the source and use ibid for the second. If the citation is from the same page as the previous reference, simply use ibid. If it is from a different page, use ibid + page number, eg ibid p. 56.


Example of using ibid

Op Cit

Op Cit is used to indicate that an author has already been cited, but it is not the preceding reference.


Example of using Op Cit.


Activity 3



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