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Citing electronic sources

Electronic sources, eg web pages, electronic journals, CD-ROMS, images etc, have become legitimate sources of imformation. They all need to be cited. Try to cite resources as closely as possible to the conventional text formats.

Web pages

To reference materials from a website, you need to supply the following information:

  • author's name (or sponser of site if no author)
  • title of website, using page name, (unless there is no author or title used)
  • publisher / hosting organisation (if applicable)
  • URL of website
  • date accessed / viewed / retrieved.


Example of electronic citation

For other electronic resources, attempt to follow the conventional requirements of citing references. Remember, the reference you provide should mean that the reader can independently find your resource from the given citation details.

Authenticity & validity

Authenticity and validity of information / resources on the Internet can be problematic. For research purposes, it is best to use recognised and reputible websites, eg e-journals or databases, those with a '.edu' extension or at least has an author's name or year mentioned.


Citing images



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