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Citing websites & electronic sources

Electronic sources and other electronic sources are becoming increasingly common. The following is a brief guideline for citing the most common forms of electronic sources.

Electronic journals & database sources

Most electronic journals (e-journals) or database sources will be in PDF format. If you have a PDF copy of an journal / database article, it is considered to be the same as having the original, eg a photocopy of the text itself. PDF documents are therefore cited using the standard Harvard intext referencing conventions as outlined for direct quotes or paraphrases.


Websites are increasingly used as sources of information, but they generally do not have page numbers. To reference a webpage, you need to provide the following:

  • author / organisation's name (or sponser of site if no author)
  • year of publication
  • section heading or paragraph number.


example of website referencing

Authenticity & validity

Authenticity and validity of information / resources on the Internet can be problematic. For research purposes, it is best to use recognised and reputible websites, eg e-journals or databases, those with a '.edu' extension or at least has an author's name or year mentioned.


Integrating ideas



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