General rules 1 & 2
Words with a silent 'e'
If a word ends with a silent 'e', drop the 'e' before adding an ending that begins with a vowel. Common endings that begin with a vowel are 'ed', 'er', 'en', 'ing', 'ous'.
If a word ends in 'ce' or 'ge', you keep the 'e' when you add 'ous' or 'able'.
Doubling the last consonant
In single syllable words ending in a consonant that follows a vowel, you double the consonant when adding 'ed', 'er', 'est', 'ing'.
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